Parenting and Child Management
Behavioral techniques have been applied to help parents more effectively teach their children to walk, develop initial language skills, provide effective toilet training, and influence their children to do household chores.
Behavioral strategies can decrease problem behaviors, such as nail biting, temper tantrums, aggressive behaviors, ignoring of rules, failure to comply with parents’ requests, and frequent arguing.
Education: From Preschool
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) is a behavior modification approach to teaching (Keller, 1968). PSI:
1. identifies the target behaviors or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions
2. requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating mastery
3. has frequent tests in which students demonstrate their knowledge of the answers to the study questions
4. has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level before going on to the next level
5. is non-punitive, in that students are not penalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but can simply restudy and try again
6. uses a number of student assistants (called proctors) to score tests immediately and provide feedback to students concerning test performance
7. incorporates a “go-at-your-own-pace” feature in which students are allowed to proceed through the course material at rates that suit their own abilities and time demands
8. uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration, rather than as a major means of presenting new information
Severe Problems: Intellectual Disabilities
Intellectual disabilities has replaced the term mental retardation among most professionals who treat this type of problem
Severe Problems: Childhood Autism
Children diagnosed with autism often show some behaviors similar to children diagnosed with intellectual disabilities; however, they are also likely to show some combination of impaired social behavior, impaired communication, abnormal play behaviors, and repetitive self-stimulatory behaviors.
Severe Problems: Schizophrenia
People with schizophrenia may hear voices other people don’t hear or they may believe that others are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. They may not make sense when they talk, may sit for hours without moving or talking much, or may seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking.
Clinical Behavior Therapy
Behavioral treatment of such clinical problems as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, stress-related problems, depression, obesity, marital problems, sexual dysfunction, and habit disorders has steadily increased since the 1970s.
Self-Management of Personal Problems
A great deal of progress has been made in the area referred to as self-management, self-control, self-adjustment, self-modification, or self-direction.
Successful self-modification requires a set of skills that can be learned; these skills involve ways of rearranging your environment to control your behavior.
Medical and Health Care
Health psychologists have applied behavioral principles in five major areas:
1. Direct Treatment of Medical Problems
2. Establishing Treatment Compliance
3. Promotion of Healthy Living
4. Management of Caregivers
5. Stress Management