It is important to make sure and give credit when using others' ideas or words in your work. Check with your instructor if you are uncertain as to which style guide is recommended for your particular class assignment. For more information on when to cite, see our page on Avoiding Plagiarism.
If you don't see an example of what you need on this website or want to look at other citation styles, and other books on citation style, check the Oregon Tech Library reference section in Klamath Falls and Wilsonville, or search the online catalog for an electronic version.
Chicago Manual of Style
Chicago Manual of style is commonly used in History. This style uses footnotes and a reference list at the end of the document.
Levine, Robert S. 1997. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader/.
Remington, Gary, and Shitij Kapur. 2005. “Remission: What’s in a Name?” American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2393–94.
Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style
CSE style, formerly known as Council of Biology Editors (CBE) style, is most frequently used in the fields of biology and environmental sciences.
There are three possible formats in this style:
- Citation-sequence: references are numbered and listed in the order they are mentioned in the paper; uses superscript numbers
- Name-year: unnumbered references are listed in alphabetical order
- Citation-name (combines aspects of the two): references are arranged alphabetically and are numbered sequentially
Cain ML, Bowman WD, Hacker SD. Ecology. 2nd ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc; 2011. 648 p.
Wilton P. The Toronto Free Hospital for Consumptive Poor. Can Med Assoc J. 1992. May 15;146(10):1812-14.
Check out the Colorado State University guide
for further information.
American Medical Association (AMA) Style
The American Medical Association citation style may be used for a research paper in medicine, health care or any other health-related topic.
Berger S. Allotment gardening : An organic guide for beginners. Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.; 2005
Porell F, Carter M. Discretionary hospitalization of nursing home residents with and without Alzheimer's disease: a multilevel analysis. J Aging Health. 2005;17(2):207-238. doi: 10.1177/0898264304274302.
Please see these websites for additional information and examples of how to use AMA style:
American Psychological Association (APA) style
APA citation style is used across many social sciences.
Austin, M.H. (1903). The land of little rain
. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/365
Scholarly journal article:
Andersson, H.I. (2009). Increased mortality among individuals with chronic widespread pain relates to lifestyle factors: A prospective population- based study. Disability & Rehabilitation
, 31, 1980-1987. doi: 10.3109/09638280902874154
View the full guide for more information
In text IEEE style uses a number in a bracket.  The citations at the end of the text appear in numerical order as the appeared in the paper. Check out the official IEEE Editorial Style manual 2017 (pdf) for details and more examples.
 A. Histace, “Image restoration—Recent advances and applications,” in Super-Resolution Restoration and Image Reconstruction for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012, pp. 25–45.
 R. Fardel, M. Nagel, F. Nuesch, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Fabrication of organic light emitting diode pixels by laser-assisted forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 6, Aug. 2007, Art.ID. 061103
Modern Language Association (MLA) style
MLA is often used in the humanities.
Wysocki, Anne Frances, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, and Geoffrey Sirc. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition
. Logan: Utah State UP, 2004. Print.
Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise
." Arizona Quarterly
50.3 (1994): 127-53. Print.
Vancouver style is sometimes used in medicine and the medical sciences. This style list references in order as they are cited in the paper or project.
Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. 541 p.
Article in an electronic journal:
Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. 2012 Dec [cited 2013 Feb 19];40(12):2872-8. Available from: http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/40/12/2872 DOI: 10.1177/0363546512458223