It is important to make sure and give credit when using others' ideas or words in your work. Check with your instructor if you are uncertain as to which style guide is recommended for your particular class assignment. For more information on when to cite, see our page on Avoiding Plagiarism.

If you don't see an example of what you need on this website or want to look at other citation styles, and other books on citation style, check the Oregon Tech Library reference section in Klamath Falls and Wilsonville, or search the online catalog for an electronic version.


The Oregon Tech Library provides this abbreviated guide to documentation of sources for academic and professional writings. The guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. The manual is located in course reserves. 

The two citation systems of the Chicago citation style are widely used in academic institutions; the choice between the two is based on a specific discipline and subject.

  • The Turabian system is used for citing sources in literature, history and the arts
  • The Author-Date system is used for citing sources in physical, natural, and social sciences

Oregon Tech programs typically use the Author-Date system when assigning Chicago Style.

CSE style, formerly known as Council of Biology Editors (CBE) style, is most frequently used in the fields of biology and environmental sciences.

There are three possible formats in this style:

  • Citation-sequence: references are numbered and listed in the order they are mentioned in the paper; uses superscript numbers
  • Name-year: unnumbered references are listed in alphabetical order
  • Citation-name (combines aspects of the two): references are arranged alphabetically and are numbered sequentially

Cain ML, Bowman WD, Hacker SD. Ecology. 2nd ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc; 2011. 648 p.  

Wilton P. The Toronto Free Hospital for Consumptive Poor. Can Med Assoc J. 1992. May 15;146(10):1812-14.

Check out the Colorado State University guide for further information.

The American Medical Association citation style may be used for a research paper in medicine, health care or any other health-related topic.

Berger S. Allotment gardening : An organic guide for beginners. Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.; 2005

Porell F, Carter M. Discretionary hospitalization of nursing home residents with and without Alzheimer's disease: a multilevel analysis. J Aging Health. 2005;17(2):207-238. doi: 10.1177/0898264304274302.

Please see these websites for additional information and examples of how to use AMA style:

Video Guide to AMA Style

APA citation style is used across many social sciences.


American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).  American Psychological Association.

Scholarly journal article:
Andersson, H.I. (2009). Increased mortality among individuals with chronic widespread pain relates to lifestyle factors: A prospective population- based study. Disability & Rehabilitation, 31, 1980-1987. doi:10.3109/09638280902874154 

View the full guide for more information

In text IEEE style uses a number in a bracket. [1] The citations at the end of the text appear in numerical order as the appeared in the paper. Check out the official IEEE Reference Guide for details and more examples.

[1] A. Histace, “Image restoration—Recent advances and applications,” in Super-Resolution Restoration and Image Reconstruction for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012, pp. 25–45.

[2] R. Fardel, M. Nagel, F. Nuesch, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Fabrication of organic light emitting diode pixels by laser-assisted forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 6, Aug. 2007, Art.ID. 061103

MLA is often used in the humanities.

Wysocki, Anne Frances, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, and Geoffrey Sirc. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Logan: Utah State UP, 2004. Print.

Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly50.3 (1994): 127-53. Print.

More Information

Vancouver style is sometimes used in medicine and the medical sciences. This style list references in order as they are cited in the paper or project.

Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. 541 p.

Article in an electronic journal:
Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. 2012 Dec [cited 2013 Feb 19];40(12):2872-8. Available from: DOI: 10.1177/0363546512458223 

More information

Online Citation Building Tools

Make sure to compare the citations you create with these tools to the examples provided.

  • BibMe:  styles supported: MLA, APA, Chicago
  • BibBuilder : styles supported: MLA
  • Citation Machine: styles supported: MLA, APA
  • Mendeley: Online management tool to organize, cite, and share references. 
  • OSLIS: APA and MLA citation builders
  • RefME: Online management tool to organize and generate citations in over 7,500 styles. Mobile ready.